Exciting news before I start the feature: Dave and I saw our first Short-eared Owl a few weeks ago! We were walking along the Delaware River at Palmyra Cove when Dave spotted a male soaring over the river near some gulls. It was pretty overcast so we didn’t get any good pictures, but we watched it for about 10 minutes before it flew over our heads and into the wooded area of the park. It was amazing!
This week’s featured owl is the Barred Owl. Although we have not yet seen one, we did hear a Barred Owl when we hiked at Michael Huber Prairie Warbler Preserve in the Pinelands.
Barred Owl (Strix varia)
Barred Owls are medium-sized owls that are a little smaller than the Great Horned. These beautiful owls are brown to brown-gray on their upperparts and heads. As their name suggests, their necks, nape, back, wings, tails, and crowns feature white/buffy barring. Barred Owls are tuftless with round heads. Their blacks eyes stand out against their gray facial disks. Juveniles have white natal down until about 2-3 weeks when their adult flight feathers start to develop.
Resident of the United States from the Great Plains to the East Coast. In Canada, found in the southern regions of Quebec, Ontario, and Manitoba; through central Saskatchewan and Alberta; throughout British Columbia expanding south to Washington, Idaho, Oregon and northern California. Also found in parts of Mexico.
Woodlands and wooded swamps, including deciduous, mature conifers, and mixed forests. Also does well in older suburban neighbors with a lot of shade trees.
Opportunistic hunters. Mainly eats small mammals such as mice, voles, rabbits, shrews, rats, and squirrels. Also hunts small birds, frogs, snakes, lizards, some insects, and aquatic prey. Barred Owls watch prey from a perch or glide low through the forest. They mainly hunt at dusk and dawn. Sometimes they will hover over prey before grabbing it. These owls usually swallow small prey whole, but tears large prey into pieces.
Referred to as a “duet”, mating pairs will court by raising wings, bobbing heads, and calling while perched together. Males may also feed the females during courtship. Scientist are unsure whether Barred Owl pairs stay together in the long term, but pairs begin to form in late winter/early spring. Pairs will choose the oldest tree they can find since they are likely to have large cavities, which Barred Owls depend on. Sometimes they will evict other occupants, such as Red-shouldered Hawks, if needed. Barred Owls may also use nest boxes.
The female will incubate a brood of 2-3 eggs for about 28-33 days while the male provides her food. Egg hatching is asynchronous, so the eggs hatch a few days apart. The female will stay with the owlets much of the time while the male feeds them. The young will begin branching (exploring the area around the nest) at around 4-5 weeks and take their first flights at 6 weeks.
Extremely vocal and instantly recognizable. Their loud calls, which are typically described as “Who-cooks-for-you, who-cooks-for-you-aaaaaallllllll!”, are made by males and females. Female’s calls are higher-pitched than the males. Scientists have recently started to study a suite of 13 complex vocalizations.
Still common and widespread. Their range is expanding into central Quebec. These owls were originally only found in the East, but over the past century have dramatically expanded their range into the Northwest. While this may be good for the Barred Owl, it’s having a detrimental effect on its close relative, the Spotted Owl.
- The Barred Owl’s most dangerous predatory threat is the larger Great Horned Owl. Barred Owls will try to avoid Great Horns since they usually live in the same habitats.
- One study done on on Barred Owls in Oregon found that the birds had 95 different species represented as prey items.
- They mainly are active at night, but may sometimes hunt during the day more than other owls.
- Studies on banded Barred Owls have shown that these owls do not travel much. They are usually found living no more than a few miles away from where they were banded.