Red-headed Woodpecker Wednesday

We only have 3 more weeks of our autumn feature, Woodpecker Wednesday. On December 21 (the Winter Solstice), Waterfowl Wednesday will return! Today’s featured woodpecker is the Red-headed Woodpecker.

Red-headed Woodpecker (Melanerpes erythrocephalus)

Descriptions:

The plumage of the Red-headed Woodpecker is bold and striking. Their bellies are white, and their wings are half-black, half-white. Their round heads are bright red. There are only four sexually monochromatic woodpeckers in the world and the Red-headed Woodpecker is one of them. This means it is extremely difficult to tell the difference between a male and female visually in the field.  Immature Red-heads actually lack the red head. Their heads are gray-brown, and the white patch on their wings have rows of black spots.

red-headed-woodpecker-10
Red-headed Woodpecker (Image by Classic Collection of North American Birds via birds-ofn-north-america.net)

Range:

Year-round from Rocky Mountain States east to the Atlantic Coast and south to Texas and Florida. Summer (breeding): from Eastern Montana to New York. Some populations winter in mid-Texas.

Habitat:

Deciduous woodlands, open forests, groves, orchards, farm country

Diet:

Considered the most omnivorous North American woodpecker. Eats nuts, insects, seeds, fruit. Sometimes they raid nests and eat eggs/nestlings. May occasionally eat mice and other adult birds. Like the Lewis’s Woodpecker, Red-heads are proficient at flycatching.

Like some other woodpeckers, Red-heads store nuts and seeds in crevices of trees. However, they are the only North American woodpecker that is known to use bark and wood as a protective covering to hide their caches.

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Foraging for acorns (Image by Jim Williams via Minnesota Star Tribune)

Breeding/Nesting:

They are monogamous, usually for several years. Males will do most of the excavating on a dead tree, and if the female approves the site she will tap with him. Red-heads may have 1-2 broods per year, with usually 4-5 eggs per clutch. Both parents will incubate the eggs for 12-13 days and the young will fledge about 27-31 days after hatching. The pair may start a second brood in the same nest, but usually a separate nest while still feeding the first brood.

Sounds:

rheer, rheer squeal; racka racka chatter used for communcation between mates, a short descending rattle as a defense call. Groups call while flycatching.

Conservation:

Populations have fluctuated dramatically over the past 200 years, and have declined in the Northeast in recent years. Population loss is likely through to lack of old-growth forests and acorn crop fluctuations. The are considered Near Threatened on the IUCN Red List (International Union for Conservation of Nature).

Fun Facts:

  • Red-heads are very pugnacious, and will be aggressive towards a variety of other birds, even the large Pileated Woodpecker 
  • Their closets relatives are the Acorn and Lewis’s Woodpecker. They are all members of the genus Melanerpes. 
  • They will store live grasshopper into tree crevices that are so tight the grasshopper can’t escape.
  • Sometimes Red-heads may drop nuts or pine cones on roads to be crushed by cars. Unfortunately, this leads to a relatively high rate of roadkill mortality.
  • Due to the striking contrast of their plumage, they are sometimes known as “the flying checkerboard”.
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Author: BirdNation

I am an avid birder, teacher, and nature lover. I primarily birdwatch throughout New Jersey and Eastern Pennsylvania.

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